Marine Research in Indonesia Vol. 33, No. 1, 2008

Japar Sidik Bujang, Lim Lai Huat, Muta Harah Zakaria, Aziz Arshad and Hisao OgawaLABORATORY CULTURE OF THE SEAGRASS, HALOPHILA OVALIS (R.Br.) HOOKER f. A small-culture system for growing of Halophila ovalis was developed. Plugs of explants were successfuly grown in the native substrate and under the light regime of ~200 ìmol m-2 s-1. The culturing of H. ovalis in the laboratory permitted observations on (i) the sustain growth and the development of the population, (ii) the reproductive biology (flowering and fruiting) and (iii) the pattern of seedling development from seeds to mature plants. Plants increased in density via vegetative propagation and sexual reproduction. Plants produced male, female flowers and fruits. The presence of viable seeds and seedlings demonstrated the successful pollination and sexual reproduction of H. ovalis in culture. The morphology of progressive development of H. ovalis seedlings to juvenile or young plants for H. ovalis in culture is described.
M.A. Farid, S. Rasidi, M.P. Patria THE COMMUNITY STRUCTURE OF SEAGRASS IN ENGGANO ISLANDS, BENGKULU The community structure of seagrass in Enggano Islands has been studied in August 2004. The aim of the study was to assess the seagrass community including species composition, density, and distribution pattern. The study was executed using transect quadrat methods, where seagrasses were counted in quadrats of 50cm². The result showed that the Enggano Islands seagrasses consist of seven species Enhalus acoroides, Halophila ovalis, Thallasia hemprichii, Cymodocea rotundata, Cymodocea serrulata, Halodule uninervis, and Syringodium isoetifolium. The highest density occurred in Dua Island dominated by Thallasia hemprichii (363.3 shoots m-²), while the lowest density occurred in Merbau Island dominated by Enhalus acoroides (0.4 shoot m-²). The highest diversity index (HB) occurred in Kiape Bay (1.446) and the lowest in Merbau Island (0.634). In general, seagrass community in Enggano Islands was dominated by Thallasia hemprichii. All species has clumped distribution pattern (Id > 1).
Japar Sidik Bujang, Norhapizah Ahmad Nazri, Muta Harah Zakaria, Aziz Arshad and Hisao Ogawa MORPHOLOGICAL PLASTICITY OF HALODULE SPECIES IN RESPONSE TO DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENTS Halodule species is widely distributed along the south and east coasts of Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah and Sarawak. Five locations were selected for the study based on different habitat characteristics; sub-tidal shoal (Merambong-2 sites; Tg. Adang Laut-2 sites), coastal lagoon (Merchang-2 sites), inter-tidal beach front (Lawas-1 site) and reef atoll lagoon (Pulau Layang-Layang-1 site). Samplings and collections of Halodule plants were conducted from August 2002 until May 2004. The result of the study found that Halodule species are found at depth of -1.5 to-2.7 m in various habitats with substrates from sandy, coralline sand, calcareous sandy-mud, sandy-mud to muddy substrates and can survive in a wide range of salinity, 18-34 psu. They adapt in the different environmental conditions through changes in morphology. Water depth (associated with ambient light), sediment type and sediment depth have an influence on the morphology of vegetative components e.g. leaf length, leaf width, erect stem length and rhizome growth pattern. Leaf tip morphology was not affected by habitat types and the environmental characteristics. Leaf tips for H. uninervis are similar in morphology between young and mature leaves. Leaf tips for H. pinifolia varied with an obvious differences between young and mature leaf tips.
Zaleha Kassim, Farah Diyana, Mohd Fathi and Amirudin AhmadMEIOBENTHIC COMMUNITY OF SUNGAI PULAI SEAGRASS BED, MALAYSIA Meiobenthos inhabiting the seagrass bed of Sungai Pulai estuary, Johor, was studied for the differences in community structure. Sampling was carried out using a hand corer during the lowest tide in December 2006. Three stations were chosen that were located at the upper estuary, lower estuary and at the sea area. Cluster analysis dendrogram of Bray-Curtis similarity showed the similarity level at about 70-75% and from the MDS plot, it is found that communities at upper estuary were separated from those at lower estuary and at sea. The differences in environmental setting were thought as the significant contributor to the distribution of meiobenthos among the stations.
MulyadiCALANOID COPEPODS OF THE GENUS CENTROPAGES AND ITS SPECIES-GROUP FROM INDONESIAN WATERS The marine copepods of the genus Centropages form a very important component of tropical marine ecosystem, but are poorly known. In a continuing study of the copepods of Indonesian coastal waters, eight species of Centropages were collected from 11 sites during 1996-2006. Four out of five previously known species i.e., C. calaninus (Dana, 1849); C. furcatus (Dana, 1849); C. gracilis (Dana, 1849); C. orsini Giesbrecht, 1896, except C. elongatus Giesbrecht, 1869 have been recorded. Four species i.e., C. brevifurcus Shen and Lee, 1963; C. dorsispinatus Thompson and Scott, 1903; C. sinensis Chen and Zhang, 1965; and C. tenuiremis Thompson and Scott, 1903, are new records for the area
Munasik, Suharsono, J. Situmorang, H.N. KamisoTIMING OF LARVAL RELEASE BY REEF CORAL POCILLOPORA DAMICORNIS AT PANJANG ISLAND, CENTRAL JAVAMonthly larval release by the coral Pocillopora damicornis at Panjang Island, Central Java was investigated. Corals were collected from windward and leeward and maintained in outdoor, flow-trough system to quantify nightly release of larvae. Larval release of the coral occurs every month throughout the year, and its planulation increases during dry monsoon. Monthly planulation occurs from new moon to full moon and possesses different pattern between single and paired colonies. Planulation in paired colonies occurred in single peak and more synchronized in each colony, however single colonies planulated in double peaks and less synchronized in each colony. This study confirmed that planulation period of P. damicornis at Panjang Island over a range of lunar phases with shorter periods of peak release which predominantly controlling by tidal range rather than lunar cycle.
Muswerry MuchtarCHEMICAL PROPERTIES IN THE CONSERVATION AREAS OF GILIMANUK BAY, WEST COAST OF BALI The study on chemical properties in the conservation areas of Gilimanuk Bay, west coast of Bali was carried out in March 2006. The dissolved oxygen and degree of acidity (pH) in surface water were analyzed. The nutrients, consisting of phosphate, nitrate and ammonia concentrations in water were analyzed as well. In general all the chemical parameters were normal for coastal waters. Dissolved oxygen in this area was lower than those in Jakarta Bay and Panimbang waters, while the nutrient concentrations were lower compared to those of Cisadane Estuary, but higher compared to those of Mamberamo Waters. The fluctuations of pH, dissolved oxygen and other nutrients were influenced by the condition of surrounding area.
Le Quang Dung and Nguyen Duc CuPARTIAL CHRONIC TOXICITY TEST OF COPPER (Cu2+), ZINC (Zn2+) AND CYANIDE (CN-) FOR YOUNG COBIA FISH (RACHYCENTRON CANADUM) The partial toxicity tests of copper (Cu2+), zinc (Zn2+) and cyanide (CN-) for young cobia (Rachycentron canadum) fishes 45 days-old were conducted in Doson station during ten days (yr 2005). These three toxic substances affected strongly the growth rate of the Cobia fish (length and weight of the body), even at the lowest treated concentration. The LC50 values of copper, zinc and cyanide were 0.32 mg l-1; over mg l-1 and 0,049 mg l-1, respectively. Based on the statistical analysis of growth rate of cobia by determining IC25, IC50, NOEC and LOEC values, we have addressed the safe concentrations of these two heavy metals and cyanide in the environmental aquaculture which must be lower than 0.025 mg Cu l-1, 0.5 mg Zn l-1 and 0.005 mg CN l-1, respectively. The result also showed that cyanide was the most toxic to Cobia, followed by copper and zinc.
Yeti Darmayati, Shigeaki Harayama, Atsushi Yamazoe, Ariani Hatmanti, Sulistiani , Ruyitno Nuchsin and Djoko Hadi KunarsoHYDROCARBONOCLASTIC BACTERIA FROM JAKARTA BAY AND SERIBU ISLANDS Jakarta Bay has been known as one of the most polluted marine environment in Indonesia, with no exception by oil. Seribu Islands waters, located in the north of Jakarta Bay may have been impacted by this polluted condition. It’s sometimes also hit by oil spillage from pipe leakage. The purpose of this study is to isolate and identify hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria (oil and Polyaromatic Hydrocarbon degrading bacteria) from Jakarta Bay and Seribu Island waters. The bacteria were isolated from water and sediment/sand. Isolation was prepared by enriched samples in SWP medium with Arabian Light Crude Oil (ALCO). Screening for PAH degrading bacteria has been completed by using sublimation plate method in ONR7a medium and screening for oil degrading bacteria were conducted by using oil plated method with the same medium. Bacteria identifications were done based on 16sRNA gene. The results were analyzed using BLAST and showed that 131 potential hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria have been isolated from Jakarta Bay and Seribu Island waters. Most of them were oil degrading bacteria (41.98%) and the rest were PAH degrading bacteria. Oil pollution level may impact the number of strain of hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria isolated. Among the hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria isolated from Jakarta Bay and Seribu Islands, Alcanivorax, Marinobacter, Achromobacter and Bacillus were common hydrocarbonoclastic genera in Jakarta Bay and its surrounding waters. Alcanivorax spp. is important oil and PAH-degrader found not only in temperate waters, but in tropical waters as well.
Mohd Talib Latif, Che Abdul Rahim Mohamad, Masni Mohd Ali, Mohamed Rozali Othman, Nor Izanin Ramli and Norfazrin Mohd. HanifCONCENTRATION AND FLUX OF ATMOSPHERIC SURFACTANTS FROM COASTAL WATERThis study tries to determine the concentration of sea surface microlayer from different coastal environments (Port Dickson, Negeri Sembilan and Perhentian Island, Terengganu). The concentration of surfactants in both sea surface microlayer and atmospheric aerosols were analysed by using colorimetric method as methylene blue active substances (MBAS) and diethyl violet active substances (DBAS). The results indicated that the concentration of surfactants as MBAS (0.421 ± 0.040 ìmol l-1) and DBAS (0.294 ± 0.123 ìmol l-1) were still at the natural concentration level. The flux of surfactants from sea surface microlayer is expected around 2.3 Mmol yr-1 compared to the amount of 1300 Mmol yr-1 surfactants in atmospheric aerosols around marine ecosystem.
Djoko Hadi KunarsoSTUDY OF MICROBIAL POLLUTION IN THE ACEH COASTAL WATERS AND ITS VICINITY Study of microbial pollution in the Aceh coastal waters and its vicinity were carried out in the period of August – September 2006. The purpose of the study is to monitor the marine and coastal environments related to the bacterial condition in Aceh waters after the tsunami disaster. The sediment and water samples were collected from 28 stations in four sites in the Aceh waters (Eastern Aceh, Northern Aceh, Western Aceh and Simeulue Islands waters), using the RV. Baruna Jaya VIII. The determination of microbial pollution was based on parameters of coliform and pathogenic bacteria. The coliform bacteria was analysed by membrane filter technique and pathogenic bacteria (Salmonella and Vibrio) by isolation method based on the selective culture media of Salmonella and TCBS agar. The results of the study showed that density of total coliform bacteria varied between 40 and 1055 CFU/100 ml with an average of 443 CFU/100 ml. Based on the pattern of the distribution of coliform bacteria it was found the highest number in Eastern Aceh with the value of 611 CFU/100 ml and the lowest number in Western Aceh with the value of 348 CFU/100 ml. Based on the density of coliform bacteria, Aceh waters was in the lower permissible level of the Indonesian and WHO standards, means that the coastal environment in Aceh waters is still in good condition. Four genera of pathogenic bacteria isolated from seawater samples were Pseudomonas, Citrobacter, Aeromonas and Proteus, and 6 genera from sediments samples were found i.e. Pseudomonas, Citrobacter, Aeromonas, Yersinia, Proteus and Vibrio. The pathogenic bacteria from the samples such as Salmonella typhy and Vibrio parahaemoliticus had low pathogenic potential. This indicated that the risk of pathogenic bacterial contamination in Aceh and its vicinity waters were relatively low, therefore, the conditions of coastal and marine environments were relatively in good condition.
Boy Rahardjo Sidharta, M.G. Lily Panggabean, and Koichiro MizushimaHORIZONTAL DISTRIBUTION OF DINOFLAGELLATE CYSTS IN SURFACE SEDIMENTS OF JAKARTA BAY: SOME PRELIMINARY RESULTSTen surface sediment samples were collected from Jakarta Bay to study the horizontal distribution of dinoflagellate resting cysts in this area. Overall results had shown unique species composition and diversity of dinoflagellate cyst assemblages. However, dinoflagellate cysts found in this preliminary research were sparse and relatively low in term of species number and concentrations. Twenty cyst morphophites were identified in this research, within which ten cysts belong to autotrophic and another ten belong to heterotrophic species. Protoperidinium cysts were the most diversified group, predominating in almost the sampling locations. The cysts identified were generally characterized by species belonged to three orders namely Gonyaulacales, Gymnodiniales, and Peridiniales. Only one dinoflagellate cyst found that was belonged to the toxic and harmful algal bloom (HAB) member species, i.e. Gymnodinium catenatum.
Thaithaworn Lirdwitayaprasit, Darin Panuksubkasul, Yoshinobu Takata, Shigeru Sato, Masaaki Kodama and Yasuwo FukuyoOCCURRENCE OF GYMNODINIUM CATENATUM IN THE GULF OF THAILANDA clonal culture of Gymnodinium catenatum was established from a plankton sample collected from Leamthan, Chonburi Province, in the Upper Gulf of Thailand. The culture was maintained at 28±10C under light intensity of 70 µmol photons m-2s-1 with 12:12 L:D cycle. Cells were harvested at late exponential phase and extracted with 0.03 M acetic acid. The HPLC analysis on thus obtained extract revealed that toxins consist of N-sulfocarbamoyl toxins, C1 and C2, as major components. GTX1, GTX2, GTX3, GTX4 and dcSTX were also detected as minor components. The toxin profile of this clone is different from clones of G. catenatum found in Singapore which was dominated by the highly potent carbamate toxins, primarily GTX 1 and 4 with less amounts of GTX2, GTX3, neosaxitoxin, and saxitoxin. No N-sulfocarbamoyl, decarbaomyl, or deoxy-decarbamoyl toxins were detected.
Riani Widiarti1, Murtiningsih, Suwarti, Ahmad Mutaqin, Gud Elina KurniaTHE POTENTIALLY TOXIC BENTHIC DINOFLAGELLATES ON MACROALGAE AT THE REEF FLAT OF SERIBU ISLANDS, NORTH JAKARTA - INDONESIAThe Ciguatera Fish Poisoning (CFP) causing microorganisms were observed at the reef flat of Penjaliran Barat Islands and Pramuka Islands District, Seribu Island National Park, North Jakarta, Indonesia. Of the samples collected, four potentially toxic benthic dinoflagellates species were found, which are Gambierdiscus toxicus, Prorocentrum concavum, Prorocentrum lima, and Ostreopsis lenticularis. The dinoflagellates were found attached on the brown macroalgae Padina and Sargassum. Most of the benthic dinoflagellates from both locations were found in Pramuka Islands District, the inhabited islands where human activities which could damage the coral reef areas were relatively high. Beside the macroalgae substrate preference of each dinoflagellate species, several environmental factors were also obtained in this research.
Nining Betawati Prihantini, Arya Widyawan, Ronny Rianto, Yuni Ariyani, Wisnu Wardhana, Dian HendrayantiPOTENTIAL TOXIC CYANOBACTERIA IN THREE LAKES OF JAKARTA-BOGOR AREA, INDONESIAThe research was aimed to understand the composition and dominancy of aquatic microalgae, and to know the potential toxicity of Cyanobacteria occuring in three lakes of Jakarta-Bogor area. The study was done in 2006. The sampling sites were Lake Sunter 2 (North Jakarta), Lake Babakan (South Jakarta), and Lake Lido (Bogor). The water samples were taken using plankton-net (20 µm mesh) with horizontal tow. The results showed that the number of microalgal genera in Sunter 2, Babakan, and Lido were different, i.e. 10 genera, 40 genera, and 14 genera, respectively. Cyanobacteria were dominant in Sunter 2 (96%) and Babakan (90.01%). The dominant Cyanobacteria in Sunter 2 was Planktothrix agardhii (53.48%), whereas in Babakan was Chroococcus dispersus (68.52%). The second abundant Cyanobacteria in Sunter 2 was Arthrospira (42.54%). Planktothrix agardhii and Arthrospira are known to produce harmful toxin.
Endang Rochyatun and A.RozakTHE DISTRIBUTION OF HEAVY METALS IN SEDIMENT OF JAKARTA BAYA survey on heavy metal content in seawater and sedimen was conducted in Jakarta Bay in May and October 2004. There is indication of significant presence of heavy metal in sedimen. The contents of heavy metals in sediment at the western part of Jakarta Bay varied as follows: Pb = 10.67-35.79 ppm, Cd = 0.04-0.30 ppm, Cu = 7.41-74.70 ppm, Zn = 76.99-497.53 ppm and Ni = 4.58-18.75 ppm. At the central part of Jakarta Bay, they varied as Pb = 6.69-64.44 ppm, Cd = 0.01-0.442 ppm, Cu = 1.19-40.60 ppm, Zn = 53.87-275.68 ppm and Ni = 4.09-11.88 ppm and at the eastern of Jakarta Bay, Pb content varied between 3.64 and 43.97 ppm, Cd = <0.001-0.320 ppm, Cu = 0.82-36.47 ppm, Zn = 78.27-230.68 ppm and Ni = 4.58-11.02 ppm. The concentration of Pb in May and of Cu in October 2004 were found higher near the coast and decreases towards the open sea, which is commonly found in front of estuary such Angke and Cengkareng Drain. The concentration of Cd in jakarta Bay was constant at all stations and does not show any correlation with the distance of station and estuary. Heavy metals content in sediment was high in Jakarta Bay.

Penulis : JS Bujang, Lim Lai Huat, Muta Harah Z, Aziz Arshad, Hisao Ogawa, MA Farid, S Rasidi, MP Patria, Norhapizah Ahmad N, Zaleha Kaasim, Farah Diyana, Mohd Fathi, Amirudin Ahmad, Mulyadi, Munasik, Suharsono, J Situmorang, HN Kamiso, Muswerry Muchtar, Le Quang Dung, Nguyen Duc Cu, Yeti Darmayati, Shigeaki H, Atsushi Y, Ariani H, Sulistiani, Ruyitno N, Djoko HK, Mohd Talib , Che Abdul RM, Masni Mohd A, M Rozali O, Nor Izanin R, Norfazrin MH, Djoko Hadi K, Boy Rahardjo S, MG Lily P, Koichiro M,
Thaitaworn L, Darin P, Yoshinobu T, Shigeru S, Masaaki K, Yasuwo F, Riani W, Martiningsih, Suwarti, Ahmad Mutaqin, Gud Elina Kurnia, Nining BP, Arya W, Ronny R, Yuni A, Wisnu W, Dian H, Endang Rochyatun, A Rozak

Dewan redaksi : Editorial Board: Zainal Arifin (Chief Editor), Augy Syahailatua, Anugerah Nontji, Subagjo Soemodihardjo, Abdul Gani Ilahude. Technical Assistant: Siti Kania Kushadiani, J. Mulawardana, Mulyanto.
ISSN : 0079-0435
Tahun Penerbitan : 2008
Penerbit : LIPI PRESS

MRI_kecil.jpg (6 KB)

MRI_kecil.jpg (6 KB)

Satker: P2 Oseanografi
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